Adversaries may use a connection proxy to direct network traffic between systems or act as an intermediary for network communications to a command and control server to avoid direct connections to their infrastructure. Many tools exist that enable traffic redirection through proxies or port redirection, including HTRAN, ZXProxy, and ZXPortMap. [1] Adversaries use these types of proxies to manage command and control communications, reduce the number of simultaneous outbound network connections, provide resiliency in the face of connection loss, or to ride over existing trusted communications paths between victims to avoid suspicion. Adversaries may chain together multiple proxies to further disguise the source of malicious traffic.

Adversaries can also take advantage of routing schemes in Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) to proxy command and control traffic.

ID: T1090
Sub-techniques:  T1090.001, T1090.002, T1090.003, T1090.004
Platforms: Linux, Network, Windows, macOS
Contributors: Heather Linn; Jon Sheedy; Walker Johnson
Version: 3.1
Created: 31 May 2017
Last Modified: 30 August 2021
Provided by LAYER 8

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0096 APT41

APT41 used a tool called CLASSFON to covertly proxy network communications.[2]

S0456 Aria-body

Aria-body has the ability to use a reverse SOCKS proxy module.[3]

S0347 AuditCred

AuditCred can utilize proxy for communications.[4]


BADCALL functions as a proxy server between the victim and C2 server.[5]

G0108 Blue Mockingbird

Blue Mockingbird has used frp, ssf, and Venom to establish SOCKS proxy connections.[6]

S0348 Cardinal RAT

Cardinal RAT can act as a reverse proxy.[7]

S0384 Dridex

Dridex contains a backconnect module for tunneling network traffic through a victim's computer. Infected computers become part of a P2P botnet that can relay C2 traffic to other infected peers.[8][9]

G0117 Fox Kitten

Fox Kitten has used the open source reverse proxy tools including FRPC and Go Proxy to establish connections from C2 to local servers.[10][11][12]


HARDRAIN uses the command cmd.exe /c netsh firewall add portopening TCP 443 "adp" and makes the victim machine function as a proxy server.[13]


HOPLIGHT has multiple proxy options that mask traffic between the malware and the remote operators.[14]


HTRAN can proxy TCP socket connections to obfuscate command and control infrastructure.[15][16]

S0283 jRAT

jRAT can serve as a SOCKS proxy server.[17]

S0487 Kessel

Kessel can use a proxy during exfiltration if set in the configuration.[18]

S0108 netsh

netsh can be used to set up a proxy tunnel to allow remote host access to an infected host.[19]


NETWIRE can implement use of proxies to pivot traffic.[20]

S0508 Ngrok

Ngrok can be used to proxy connections to machines located behind NAT or firewalls.[21][22]

G0116 Operation Wocao

Operation Wocao has used a custom proxy tool called "Agent" which has support for multiple hops.[23]


PLEAD has the ability to proxy network communications.[24]

S0378 PoshC2

PoshC2 contains modules that allow for use of proxies in command and control.[25]

S0262 QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT can communicate over a reverse proxy using SOCKS5.[26][27]

S0629 RainyDay

RainyDay can use proxy tools including boost_proxy_client for reverse proxy functionality.[28]

S0332 Remcos

Remcos uses the infected hosts as SOCKS5 proxies to allow for tunneling and proxying.[29]

G0034 Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team's BCS-server tool can create an internal proxy server to redirect traffic from the adversary-controlled C2 to internal servers which may not be connected to the internet, but are interconnected locally.[30]

S0461 SDBbot

SDBbot has the ability to use port forwarding to establish a proxy between a target host and C2.[31]

S0273 Socksbot

Socksbot can start SOCKS proxy threads.[32]

S0615 SombRAT

SombRAT has the ability to use an embedded SOCKS proxy in C2 communications.[33]

S0436 TSCookie

TSCookie has the ability to proxy communications with command and control (C2) servers.[34]

G0010 Turla

Turla RPC backdoors have included local UPnP RPC proxies.[35]


A TYPEFRAME variant can force the compromised system to function as a proxy server.[36]

S0386 Ursnif

Ursnif has used a peer-to-peer (P2P) network for C2.[37][38]

S0207 Vasport

Vasport is capable of tunneling though a proxy.[39]

G0124 Windigo

Windigo has delivered a generic Windows proxy Win32/Glubteta.M. Windigo has also used multiple reverse proxy chains as part of their C2 infrastructure.[40]

S0117 XTunnel

XTunnel relays traffic between a C2 server and a victim.[41]

S0412 ZxShell

ZxShell can set up an HTTP or SOCKS proxy.[2][42]


ID Mitigation Description
M1037 Filter Network Traffic

Traffic to known anonymity networks and C2 infrastructure can be blocked through the use of network allow and block lists. It should be noted that this kind of blocking may be circumvented by other techniques like Domain Fronting.

M1031 Network Intrusion Prevention

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level. Signatures are often for unique indicators within protocols and may be based on the specific C2 protocol used by a particular adversary or tool, and will likely be different across various malware families and versions. Adversaries will likely change tool C2 signatures over time or construct protocols in such a way as to avoid detection by common defensive tools. [43]

M1020 SSL/TLS Inspection

If it is possible to inspect HTTPS traffic, the captures can be analyzed for connections that appear to be domain fronting.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0029 Network Traffic Network Connection Creation
Network Traffic Content
Network Traffic Flow

Analyze network data for uncommon data flows (e.g., a client sending significantly more data than it receives from a server or between clients that should not or often do not communicate with one another). Processes utilizing the network that do not normally have network communication or have never been seen before are suspicious. Analyze packet contents to detect communications that do not follow the expected protocol behavior for the port that is being used. [43]

Consider monitoring for traffic to known anonymity networks (such as Tor).


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  1. Dantzig, M. v., Schamper, E. (2019, December 19). Operation Wocao: Shining a light on one of China’s hidden hacking groups. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
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  6. Vrabie, V. (2021, April 23). NAIKON – Traces from a Military Cyber-Espionage Operation. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  7. Klijnsma, Y. (2018, January 23). Espionage Campaign Leverages Spear Phishing, RATs Against Turkish Defense Contractors. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  8. Cherepanov, A.. (2016, December 13). The rise of TeleBots: Analyzing disruptive KillDisk attacks. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
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