Data from Local System

Sensitive data can be collected from local system sources, such as the file system or databases of information residing on the system.

Local system data includes information stored by the operating system. Access to local system data often requires escalated privileges (e.g. root access). Examples of local system data include authentication tokens, the device keyboard cache, Wi-Fi passwords, and photos.

ID: T1533
Sub-techniques:  No sub-techniques
Tactic Type: Post-Adversary Device Access
Tactic: Collection
Platforms: Android, iOS
Version: 1.0
Created: 10 October 2019
Last Modified: 11 October 2019
Provided by LAYER 8

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0422 Anubis

Anubis can exfiltrate files encrypted with the ransomware module from the device and can modify external storage.[1][2]

S0655 BusyGasper

BusyGasper can collect images stored on the device and browser history.[3]


CHEMISTGAMES can collect files from the filesystem and account information from Google Chrome.[4]

S0426 Concipit1248

Concipit1248 can collect device photos.[5]

S0425 Corona Updates

Corona Updates can collect voice notes, device accounts, and gallery images.[5]

S0301 Dendroid

Dendroid can collect the device’s photos, browser history, bookmarks, and accounts stored on the device.[6]

S0505 Desert Scorpion

Desert Scorpion can collect attacker-specified files, including files located on external storage.[7]

S0550 DoubleAgent

DoubleAgent has collected files from the infected device.[8]

S0507 eSurv

eSurv can exfiltrate device pictures.[9]

S0405 Exodus

Exodus Two can extract information on pictures from the Gallery, Chrome and SBrowser bookmarks, and the connected WiFi network's password.[10]

S0408 FlexiSpy

FlexiSpy can monitor device photos and can also access browser history and bookmarks.[11]

S0577 FrozenCell

FrozenCell has retrieved device images for exfiltration.[12]

S0423 Ginp

Ginp can download device logs.[13]

S0535 Golden Cup

Golden Cup can collect images, videos, and attacker-specified files.[14]

S0551 GoldenEagle

GoldenEagle has retrieved .doc, .txt, .gif, .apk, .jpg, .png, .mp3, and .db files from external storage.[8]

S0421 GolfSpy

GolfSpy can collect local accounts on the device, pictures, bookmarks/histories of the default browser, and files stored on the SD card. GolfSpy can list image, audio, video, and other files stored on the device. GolfSpy can copy arbitrary files from the device.[15]

S0290 Gooligan

Gooligan steals authentication tokens that can be used to access data from multiple Google applications.[16]

S0536 GPlayed

GPlayed can collect the user’s browser cookies.[17]

S0406 Gustuff

Gustuff can capture files and photos from the compromised device.[18]

S0544 HenBox

HenBox can steal data from various sources, including chat, communication, and social media apps.[19]


INSOMNIA can collect application database files, including Gmail, Hangouts, device photos, and container directories of third-party apps.[20]

S0407 Monokle

Monokle can retrieve the salt used when storing the user’s password, aiding an adversary in computing the user’s plaintext password/PIN from the stored password hash. Monokle can also capture the user’s dictionary, user-defined shortcuts, and browser history, enabling profiling of the user and their activities.[21]

S0295 RCSAndroid

RCSAndroid can collect passwords for Wi-Fi networks and online accounts, including Skype, Facebook, Twitter, Google, WhatsApp, Mail, and LinkedIn.[22]

S0549 SilkBean

SilkBean can retrieve files from external storage and can collect browser data.[8]

S0305 SpyNote RAT

SpyNote RAT can copy files from the device to the C2 server.[23]

S0328 Stealth Mango

Stealth Mango collected and exfiltrated data from the device, including sensitive letters/documents, stored photos, and stored audio files.[24]

S0329 Tangelo

Tangelo accesses browser history, pictures, and videos.[24]

S0558 Tiktok Pro

Tiktok Pro can collect device photos and credentials from other applications.[25]

S0427 TrickMo

TrickMo can steal pictures from the device.[26]

S0418 ViceLeaker

ViceLeaker can copy arbitrary files from the device to the C2 server, can exfiltrate browsing history, can exfiltrate the SD card structure, and can exfiltrate pictures as the user takes them.[27][28]

S0506 ViperRAT

ViperRAT can collect device photos, PDF documents, Office documents, browser history, and browser bookmarks.[29]

G0112 Windshift

Windshift has exfiltrated local account data and calendar information as part of Operation ROCK.[30]

S0489 WolfRAT

WolfRAT can collect user account, photos, browser history, and arbitrary files.[31]


This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.


Accessing data from the local system can be difficult to detect, and therefore enterprises may be better served focusing on detection at other stages of adversarial behavior.


  1. M. Feller. (2020, February 5). Infostealer, Keylogger, and Ransomware in One: Anubis Targets More than 250 Android Applications. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  2. K. Sun. (2019, January 17). Google Play Apps Drop Anubis, Use Motion-based Evasion. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  3. Alexey Firsh. (2018, August 29). BusyGasper – the unfriendly spy. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  4. B. Leonard, N. Mehta. (2019, November 21). The Secret Life of Sandworms. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  5. T. Bao, J. Lu. (2020, April 14). Coronavirus Update App Leads to Project Spy Android and iOS Spyware. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  6. Marc Rogers. (2014, March 6). Dendroid malware can take over your camera, record audio, and sneak into Google Play. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
  7. A. Blaich, M. Flossman. (2018, April 16). Lookout finds new surveillanceware in Google Play with ties to known threat actor targeting the Middle East. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  8. A. Kumar, K. Del Rosso, J. Albrecht, C. Hebeisen. (2020, June 1). Mobile APT Surveillance Campaigns Targeting Uyghurs - A collection of long-running Android tooling connected to a Chinese mAPT actor. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  9. A. Bauer. (2019, April 8). Lookout discovers phishing sites distributing new iOS and Android surveillanceware. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  10. Security Without Borders. (2019, March 29). Exodus: New Android Spyware Made in Italy. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  11. FlexiSpy. (n.d.). FlexiSpy Monitoring Features. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  12. Michael Flossman. (2017, October 5). FrozenCell: Multi-platform surveillance campaign against Palestinians. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  13. ThreatFabric. (2019, November). Ginp - A malware patchwork borrowing from Anubis. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  14. R. Iarchy, E. Rynkowski. (2018, July 5). GoldenCup: New Cyber Threat Targeting World Cup Fans. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  15. E. Xu, G. Guo. (2019, June 28). Mobile Cyberespionage Campaign ‘Bouncing Golf’ Affects Middle East. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  16. Check Point Research Team. (2016, November 30). More Than 1 Million Google Accounts Breached by Gooligan. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  1. V. Ventura. (2018, October 11). GPlayed Trojan - .Net playing with Google Market . Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  2. Vitor Ventura. (2019, April 9). Gustuff banking botnet targets Australia . Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  3. A. Hinchliffe, M. Harbison, J. Miller-Osborn, et al. (2018, March 13). HenBox: The Chickens Come Home to Roost. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  4. I. Beer. (2019, August 29). Implant Teardown. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  5. Bauer A., Kumar A., Hebeisen C., et al. (2019, July). Monokle: The Mobile Surveillance Tooling of the Special Technology Center. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  6. Veo Zhang. (2015, July 21). Hacking Team RCSAndroid Spying Tool Listens to Calls; Roots Devices to Get In. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
  7. Shivang Desai. (2017, January 23). SpyNote RAT posing as Netflix app. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  8. Lookout. (n.d.). Stealth Mango & Tangelo. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  9. S. Desai. (2020, September 8). TikTok Spyware. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  10. P. Asinovsky. (2020, March 24). TrickBot Pushing a 2FA Bypass App to Bank Customers in Germany. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  11. GReAT. (2019, June 26). ViceLeaker Operation: mobile espionage targeting Middle East. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  12. L. Arsene, C. Ochinca. (2018, August 20). Triout – Spyware Framework for Android with Extensive Surveillance Capabilities. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  13. M. Flossman. (2017, February 16). ViperRAT: The mobile APT targeting the Israeli Defense Force that should be on your radar. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  14. The BlackBerry Research & Intelligence Team. (2020, October). BAHAMUT: Hack-for-Hire Masters of Phishing, Fake News, and Fake Apps. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  15. W. Mercer, P. Rascagneres, V. Ventura. (2020, May 19). The wolf is back... . Retrieved July 20, 2020.