Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility

An adversary may compress or encrypt data that is collected prior to exfiltration using 3rd party utilities. Many utilities exist that can archive data, including 7-Zip[1], WinRAR[2], and WinZip[3]. Most utilities include functionality to encrypt and/or compress data.

Some 3rd party utilities may be preinstalled, such as tar on Linux and macOS or zip on Windows systems.

ID: T1560.001
Sub-technique of:  T1560
Tactic: Collection
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
Version: 1.0
Created: 20 February 2020
Last Modified: 25 March 2020
Provided by LAYER 8

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0622 AppleSeed

AppleSeed can zip and encrypt data collected on a target system.[4]

G0006 APT1

APT1 has used RAR to compress files before moving them outside of the victim network.[5]

G0007 APT28

APT28 has used a variety of utilities, including WinRAR, to archive collected data with password protection.[6]

G0016 APT29

APT29 used 7-Zip to compress stolen emails into password-protected archives prior to exfiltration.[7][8]

G0022 APT3

APT3 has used tools to compress data before exfilling it.[9]

G0064 APT33

APT33 has used WinRAR to compress data prior to exfil.[10]

G0087 APT39

APT39 has used WinRAR and 7-Zip to compress an archive stolen data.[11]

G0096 APT41

APT41 created a RAR archive of targeted files for exfiltration.[12]


BRONZE BUTLER has compressed data into password-protected RAR archives prior to exfiltration.[13][14]

S0274 Calisto

Calisto uses the zip -r command to compress the data collected on the local system.[15][16]

G0114 Chimera

Chimera has used gzip for Linux OS and a modified RAR software to archive data on Windows hosts.[17][18]

G0052 CopyKittens

CopyKittens uses ZPP, a .NET console program, to compress files with ZIP.[19]


CORALDECK has created password-protected RAR, WinImage, and zip archives to be exfiltrated.[20]

S0538 Crutch

Crutch has used the WinRAR utility to compress and encrypt stolen files.[21]

S0187 Daserf

Daserf hides collected data in password-protected .rar archives.[22]

S0062 DustySky

DustySky can compress files via RAR while staging data to be exfiltrated.[23]

G0061 FIN8

FIN8 has used RAR to compress collected data before exfiltration.[24]

G0117 Fox Kitten

Fox Kitten has used 7-Zip to archive data.[25]


GALLIUM used WinRAR to compress and encrypt stolen data prior to exfiltration.[26][27]

G0084 Gallmaker

Gallmaker has used WinZip, likely to archive data prior to exfiltration.[28]


HAFNIUM has used 7-Zip and WinRAR to compress stolen files for exfiltration.[29][30]

S0278 iKitten

iKitten will zip up the /Library/Keychains directory before exfiltrating it.[31]

S0260 InvisiMole

InvisiMole uses WinRAR to compress data that is intended to be exfiltrated.[32]

G0004 Ke3chang

Ke3chang is known to use RAR with passwords to encrypt data prior to exfiltration.[33]

G0059 Magic Hound

Magic Hound has used RAR to stage and compress local folders.[34]

G0045 menuPass

menuPass has compressed files before exfiltration using TAR and RAR.[35][36][37]

S0339 Micropsia

Micropsia creates a RAR archive based on collected files on the victim's machine.[38]

G0069 MuddyWater

MuddyWater has used the native Windows cabinet creation tool, makecab.exe, likely to compress stolen data to be uploaded.[39]

G0129 Mustang Panda

Mustang Panda has used RAR to create password-protected archives of collected documents prior to exfiltration.[40][41]

S0340 Octopus

Octopus has compressed data before exfiltrating it using a tool called Abbrevia.[42]

S0439 Okrum

Okrum was seen using a RAR archiver tool to compress/decompress data.[43]

S0264 OopsIE

OopsIE compresses collected files with GZipStream before sending them to its C2 server.[44]

G0116 Operation Wocao

Operation Wocao has archived collected files with WinRAR, prior to exfiltration.[45]

S0428 PoetRAT

PoetRAT has the ability to compress files with zip.[46]

S0378 PoshC2

PoshC2 contains a module for compressing data using ZIP.[47]

S0441 PowerShower

PowerShower has used 7Zip to compress .txt, .pdf, .xls or .doc files prior to exfiltration.[48]


PUNCHBUGGY has Gzipped information and saved it to a random temp file before exfil.[49]

S0192 Pupy

Pupy can compress data with Zip before sending it over C2.[50]

S0458 Ramsay

Ramsay can compress and archive collected files using WinRAR.[51][52]

G0054 Sowbug

Sowbug extracted documents and bundled them into a RAR archive.[53]

S0647 Turian

Turian can use WinRAR to create a password-protected archive for files of interest.[54]

G0010 Turla

Turla has encrypted files stolen from connected USB drives into a RAR file before exfiltration.[55]

S0466 WindTail

WindTail has the ability to use the macOS built-in zip utility to archive files.[56]


ID Mitigation Description
M1047 Audit

System scans can be performed to identify unauthorized archival utilities.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0017 Command Command Execution
DS0022 File File Creation
DS0009 Process Process Creation

Common utilities that may be present on the system or brought in by an adversary may be detectable through process monitoring and monitoring for command-line arguments for known archival utilities. This may yield a significant number of benign events, depending on how systems in the environment are typically used.

Consider detecting writing of files with extensions and/or headers associated with compressed or encrypted file types. Detection efforts may focus on follow-on exfiltration activity, where compressed or encrypted files can be detected in transit with a network intrusion detection or data loss prevention system analyzing file headers.[57]


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