Command and Scripting Interpreter: Python

Adversaries may abuse Python commands and scripts for execution. Python is a very popular scripting/programming language, with capabilities to perform many functions. Python can be executed interactively from the command-line (via the python.exe interpreter) or via scripts (.py) that can be written and distributed to different systems. Python code can also be compiled into binary executables.

Python comes with many built-in packages to interact with the underlying system, such as file operations and device I/O. Adversaries can use these libraries to download and execute commands or other scripts as well as perform various malicious behaviors.

ID: T1059.006
Sub-technique of:  T1059
Tactic: Execution
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
System Requirements: Python is installed.
Permissions Required: Administrator, SYSTEM, root
Version: 1.0
Created: 09 March 2020
Last Modified: 26 July 2021
Provided by LAYER 8

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0016 APT29

APT29 has developed malware variants written in Python.[1]

G0067 APT37

APT37 has used Python scripts to execute payloads.[2]

G0087 APT39

APT39 has used a command line utility and a network scanner written in python.[3][4]

S0234 Bandook

Bandook can support commands to execute Python-based payloads.[5]


BRONZE BUTLER has made use of Python-based remote access tools.[6]

S0482 Bundlore

Bundlore has used Python scripts to execute payloads.[7]

S0631 Chaes

Chaes has used Python scripts for execution and the installation of additional files.[8]

S0154 Cobalt Strike

Cobalt Strike can use Python to perform execution.[9][10][11][12]

S0369 CoinTicker

CoinTicker executes a Python script to download its second stage.[13]

S0492 CookieMiner

CookieMiner has used python scripts on the user’s system, as well as the Python variant of the Empire agent, EmPyre.[14]

G0074 Dragonfly 2.0

Dragonfly 2.0 used various types of scripting to perform operations, including Python scripts. The group was observed installing Python 2.7 on a victim.[15][16]

S0547 DropBook

DropBook is a Python-based backdoor compiled with PyInstaller.[17]

S0377 Ebury

Ebury has used Python to implement its DGA.[18]

S0581 IronNetInjector

IronNetInjector can use IronPython scripts to load payloads with the help of a .NET injector.[19]

S0387 KeyBoy

KeyBoy uses Python scripts for installing files and performing execution.[20]

S0276 Keydnap

Keydnap uses Python for scripting to execute additional commands.[21]

G0094 Kimsuky

Kimsuky has used a Mac OS Python implant to gather data.[22]

S0409 Machete

Machete is written in Python and is used in conjunction with additional Python scripts.[23][24][25]

G0095 Machete

Machete used multiple compiled Python scripts on the victim’s system. Machete's main backdoor Machete is also written in Python.[26][23][25]

S0459 MechaFlounder

MechaFlounder uses a python-based payload.[27]

G0069 MuddyWater

MuddyWater has used developed tools in Python including Out1.[28]

G0116 Operation Wocao

Operation Wocao's backdoors have been written in Python and compiled with py2exe.[29]

S0428 PoetRAT

PoetRAT was executed with a Python script and worked in conjunction with additional Python-based post-exploitation tools.[30]


PUNCHBUGGY has used python scripts.[31]

S0192 Pupy

Pupy can use an add on feature when creating payloads that allows you to create custom Python scripts ("scriptlets") to perform tasks offline (without requiring a session) such as sandbox detection, adding persistence, etc.[32]

S0583 Pysa

Pysa has used Python scripts to deploy ransomware.[33]

S0332 Remcos

Remcos uses Python scripts.[34]

G0106 Rocke

Rocke has used Python-based malware to install and spread their coinminer.[35]

S0374 SpeakUp

SpeakUp uses Python scripts.[36]

G0131 Tonto Team

Tonto Team has used Python-based tools for execution.[37]


TRITON was run as trilog.exe, a Py2EXE compiled python script that accepts a single IP address as a flag.[38]

S0647 Turian

Turian has the ability to use Python to spawn a Unix shell.[39]

G0010 Turla

Turla has used IronPython scripts as part of the IronNetInjector toolchain to drop payloads.[19]


ZIRCONIUM has used Python-based implants to interact with compromised hosts.[40][41]


ID Mitigation Description
M1049 Antivirus/Antimalware

Anti-virus can be used to automatically quarantine suspicious files.

M1047 Audit

Inventory systems for unauthorized Python installations.

M1038 Execution Prevention

Denylist Python where not required.

M1033 Limit Software Installation

Prevent users from installing Python where not required.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0017 Command Command Execution
DS0009 Process Process Creation

Monitor systems for abnormal Python usage and python.exe behavior, which could be an indicator of malicious activity. Understanding standard usage patterns is important to avoid a high number of false positives. If scripting is restricted for normal users, then any attempts to enable scripts running on a system would be considered suspicious. If scripts are not commonly used on a system, but enabled, scripts running out of cycle from patching or other administrator functions are suspicious. Scripts should be captured from the file system when possible to determine their actions and intent.

Scripts are likely to perform actions with various effects on a system that may generate events, depending on the types of monitoring used. Monitor processes and command-line arguments for script execution and subsequent behavior. Actions may be related to network and system information Discovery, Collection, or other scriptable post-compromise behaviors and could be used as indicators of detection leading back to the source script.


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  7. Peretz, A. and Theck, E. (2021, March 5). Earth Vetala – MuddyWater Continues to Target Organizations in the Middle East. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
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